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What About Infants?

Understanding Infant Baptism: A Perspective for All Denominations

Baptism, a sacred and unifying act among Christians, has been a source of significant debate, particularly between advocates of infant baptism and believer’s baptism. It’s essential to approach this topic with respect, understanding that both perspectives are rooted in a desire to honor biblical teachings and nurture faith within their communities.

Historical and Biblical Context

Infant baptism, practiced by many mainstream denominations such as Anglican, Presbyterian, Reformed, Lutheran, Methodist, and Uniting churches, has deep historical roots. Early church writings indicate that this practice was well-established by the second century, suggesting a continuity with the earliest Christian traditions.

Biblically, while there is no explicit command to baptize infants, several passages provide a foundation for this practice. For instance, the household baptisms mentioned in Acts (e.g., Acts 10, 11:14, 16, 18) imply that entire families, potentially including children and infants, were baptized. This interpretation aligns with the Jewish understanding of “household,” which encompassed all family members, including infants.

Theological Considerations

  1. Covenant Theology: In the Old Testament, God’s covenant with Abraham included his descendants, marked by the sign of circumcision given to infants (Genesis 17:9-10). This principle of including children in the covenant community carries over into the New Testament, where baptism is seen as a sign of the new covenant. Thus, infant baptism signifies that children of believers are part of the faith community from birth​.

  2. Household Baptisms: The New Testament’s use of “household” when describing baptisms is significant. It indicates a collective inclusion, reflecting the Jewish practice of family solidarity in spiritual matters. As Cornelius’s household feared God before conversion and was baptized together, it suggests continuity with Old Testament practices where infants were included in spiritual blessings and communal rites​

  3. Pastoral Benefits: Infant baptism provides a pastoral advantage by affirming that children of believers are part of the church community. This practice supports parents in raising their children within the faith, recognizing God’s grace at work from the earliest stages of life. It avoids the potential confusion and mixed messages that might arise from treating children as outsiders to the faith until a certain age.

Addressing Common Rebuttals

1. The Argument from Biblical Silence

One of the primary arguments against infant baptism is the absence of a direct command in Scripture. Critics often point out that there is no explicit verse instructing believers to baptize infants. While this is true, it is equally important to note that there is no verse commanding us to wait until a child reaches a certain age before baptizing them. Both practices are developed from principles and inferences drawn from biblical texts.

Peter's call in Acts 2:38 to "Repent and be baptized" is often cited as evidence that baptism should follow personal repentance and faith. However, it is crucial to understand the context of this statement. Peter was addressing adults who were capable of making a personal decision to follow Christ. This does not necessarily preclude the baptism of infants in different contexts, particularly within believing households.

2. Household Baptisms

The term “household” in biblical accounts of baptism is significant. In the Jewish context, households included everyone under the same roof, from adults to infants. This collective view of family and faith suggests that when entire households were baptized, infants were likely included. Critics argue that since infants cannot personally repent or believe, they should not be baptized. However, this perspective does not account for the Jewish understanding of household solidarity, where infants were seen as part of the faith community by virtue of their parents' faith.

3. Infant Baptism and Faith

Another common rebuttal is that baptism should be an outward sign of an individual's personal faith, which infants are incapable of expressing. However, this argument overlooks the unique status of children born into believing families. These children are raised within the faith, taught to pray, and encouraged to live according to Christian principles from a young age. They are not treated as outsiders but as members of the faith community who will grow into a mature expression of their faith. Baptizing them recognizes this unique status and the nurturing role of the church and family​.

4. Continuity with Old Testament Practices

Some critics argue that the Old Testament practice of circumcision does not provide a valid basis for infant baptism. They contend that baptism, as a New Testament ordinance, should be distinct from Old Testament rituals. However, this view overlooks the continuity between the covenants. Just as circumcision was a sign of inclusion in the Abrahamic covenant, baptism is a sign of inclusion in the new covenant. This continuity underscores the appropriateness of baptizing the children of believers, recognizing them as part of the covenant community​.

5. The Role of Parents and the Church

A significant pastoral benefit of infant baptism is the support it provides to parents and the church community. Baptizing infants reinforces the responsibility of parents to raise their children in the faith and the church’s role in supporting this process. It acknowledges the grace of God at work in the lives of these children from the beginning, encouraging them to grow into their faith within a nurturing community. This approach avoids the potential confusion of treating children as outsiders to the faith until they reach a certain age​.


A Balanced Perspective

Both infant and believer’s baptism seek to honor biblical principles and nurture faith. While believer’s baptism emphasizes the individual’s personal decision to follow Christ, infant baptism highlights God’s initiative in grace and the inclusion of believers’ children in the covenant community.

It’s crucial to acknowledge that both practices operate within a context of biblical silence on explicit instructions regarding the age for baptism. Therefore, each tradition draws on theological inferences and historical practices to form their convictions.


Ultimately, the goal for all Christian denominations is to remain faithful to biblical truth and to foster a genuine relationship with Christ within their communities. Whether through infant baptism or believer’s baptism, each tradition seeks to uphold the gospel and the nurturing of faith. Respecting these differences and recognising the biblical foundations of each practice can lead to greater unity and understanding among Christians. Both perspectives are valid and biblical, reflecting the diverse ways in which God’s grace is at work in His people.

In conclusion, while the debate over infant versus believer’s baptism is significant, it is essential to recognise that both practices aim to honor God and nurture faith within the community. Infant baptism, supported by historical practice, biblical inferences, and pastoral benefits, stands as a reasonable and biblically grounded act. Embracing the diversity in baptismal practices can lead to a richer, more unified faith experience, grounded in a shared commitment to discovering and living out biblical truth.

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